A new cure rate model with flexible competing causes with applications to melanoma and transplantation data
In this article, we introduce a long-term survival model in which the number of competing causes of the event of interest follows the zero-modified geometric (ZMG) distribution. Such distribution accommodates equidispersion, underdispersion, and overdispersion and captures deflation or inflation of zeros in the number of lesions or initiated cells after the treatment. The ZMG distribution is also an appropriate alternative for modeling clustered samples when the number of competing causes of the event of interest consists of two subpopulations, one containing only zeros (cure proportion), while in the other (noncure proportion) the number of competing causes of the event of interest follows a geometric distribution. The advantage of this assumption is that we can measure the cure proportion in the initiated cells. Furthermore, the proposed model can yield greater or lower cure proportion than that of the geometric distribution when modeling the number of competing causes. In this article, we present some statistical properties of the proposed model and use the maximum likelihood method to estimate the model parameters. We also conduct a Monte Carlo simulation study to evaluate the performance of the estimators. We present and discuss two applications using real-world medical data to assess the practical usefulness of the proposed model.
Declining fisheries and increasing prices: The economic cost of tropical T rivers impoundment
This work tests the null hypothesis that the coefficients of the total landings, landed values, mean catches and price per kg of migratory and resident species are constant over time following the installation of two large run- of-the-river hydroelectric dams in a large tropical river. To identify shifts in catches and economic returns due to river impoundment, we inspected daily landing data (25-year time series) and wholesale prices (19-year time series) for the Madeira River, the largest tributary of the Amazon River. Our results show that the period of decreasing catches and increasing prices observed for fisheries in the Madeira River matched the timings of the construction of the two dams. According to the results, both dams quickly changed catches and fish supply to market, which were immediately echoed in the price per kg of exploited fish species. Following the dam con- struction, prices rose for both fish that became scarce and fish that became abundant. Though catches declined 58% in 25 years, the price increased 49% over the same period, representing a high economic cost for the local population. Further, there was a clear decline in the catches of some species (e.g., the dourada and the curimatã), but increased catches of others (e.g., the sardine and the tucunaré). Moreover, some fluctuation patterns across years showed natural oscillations, or changes, in local habitats and even fishing efforts.